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Protein Key™ Scientific Confirmation

“Current US recommendations for daily dietary protein intake are 0.8 grams/kilogram of body weight (roughly 62 g of protein per day for a 170-pound person). Previous research has shown that older adults need a protein intake of at least 0.40 g/kg of body weight at each meal (roughly 31 g of protein per meal or 93 g per day for a 170-pound person) to encourage maximum protein synthesis. This represents a significantly higher amount of protein than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) suggests.” American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism. January 1, 2015: 308(1); E21-E28.

“As we age, we naturally lose muscle mass and strength due to a trifecta of reduced muscle response to protein intake, changing hormones and for some, less physical activity. Called sarcopenia, this gradual loss of muscle mass has been credited with a litany of health problems, including insulin resistance, low bone mineral content and density, falls and fractures – even death, says lead author IL-Young Kim... For maximal muscle, Kim says the majority of older adults need to consume about 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body mass per day. Kim recommends getting the bulk of your protein from animal sources such as beef, fish, milk and cheese.” US News. February 13, 2015.

"... a high carbohydrate meal, or diets high in carbohydrate, were associated with feeling less energetic... " Benton, D. Carbohydrate ingestion, blood glucose and mood. Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews, 26 (3), 293-308, 2002.           

"those fed an ad libitum high protein diet experienced an increase in resting and total energy expenditure over those fed a free choice moderate protein diet... " JAPAN Online. October 2010.

"... a high-protein, calcium-replete diet may protect against bone loss during weight reduction." Bowen, J., et al. A High Dairy Protein, High-Calcium Diet Minimizes Bone Turnover... during Weight Loss. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 568-573, 2004.

"... low protein negatively effects bone health... " Bonjour, J. -P. Dietary Protein: An Essential Nutrient For Bone Health. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 24 (90006), 526S-536S, 2005.

"A low-carbohydrate, HP (high-protein) hypoenergetic diet could be the weight composition of choice for a weight reducing regimen... " Baba, N. H., et al. High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergenic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23 (11), 1202-1206, 1999.

"... blood sugar levels were lowered by 40% amount the high-protein group." Gannon, M., et al. An increase in dietary protein"... the relative risk of Crohn's disease was increased for subjects who had a high intake of sucrose... " Persson P. G., et al. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Epidemiology, 3, 47-52, 1992.

"... sugar and confectionary was associated with an increased risk... " Cornee, J., et al. A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France. European Journal of Epidemiology, 11, 1995.

"... high amount of low molecular weight sugars and partially digested starches in the small intestine can cause symptoms of intestinal distention, rapid peristalsis, and diarrhea... " Claudia, C., et al. Disaccharide Digestion: Clinical and Molecular Aspects. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 4 (3), 276-287, 2006.

"... risk of AMD (age-related macular degeneration) progression... may benefit from consuming a smaller amount of refined carbohydrates." Chiu, CJ, et al. Dietary carbohydrate and the progression of age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(4), 1210-1218, 2007.

"... excessive amounts of dietary sugar... risk factor for the development of cataract in normal (nondiabetic) animals." Veromann, S.et al. Dietary Sugar and Salt Represent Real Risk Factors for Cataract Development. Ophthalmologica, 217(4), 302-307, 2003.

"... recommendation in this paper is higher than the current meant recommended intake of protein... " Kurpad, A.V., and M. Vaz. Protein and amino acid requirements in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr, 54(suppl 3), S131-S142, 2000.

"... a high intake of rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates increases the risk of ischemic heart disease... " Liu, S., et al. Relation between diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein... American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75 (3), 492-498, 2002

"... it seems reasonable to question the wisdom of recommending... low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets." Jeppesen, J., et al. Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease... American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65 (4), 1027-1033, 1997.

"... replacing carbohydrates with protein may be associated with lower risk of ischemic heart disease... " Hu, F. B., et al. Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease... American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 (2), 221-227, 1999.

"... partial substitution of carbohydrate with either protein or monounsaturated fat can further lower blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce estimated cardiovascular risk." Appel, L. J., et al. Effects of Protein, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate Intake on Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 294 (19), 2005.

"... inclusion of sugar... or increase in sucrose on the diet of healthy volunteers produces several changes in the body. Some of these resemble the abnormalities seen in coronary heart disease, and others those seen in maturity-onset diabetes... ." Yudkin, J., et al. Effects of high dietary sugar. British Medical Journal, 281, 1396, 1980.

"... sugar, particularly excessive fructose intake, has a critical role in the epidemic of cardiorenal disease... " Johnson, R. J., et al. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86 (4), 899-906, 2007.

"... protein deficiency alone can impair immune responsiveness for prolonged periods, perhaps permanently, if imposed during critical periods of immune ontogeny... " Gershwin, M. E., et al. Nutrition and Immunity. Proc Nutr Soc, 12, 1987.

"... protein supplement accelerated the development of immunity to O circumcincta... " Coop, R.L., et al. Effect of dietary protein supplementation on the development of immunity to Ostertagia circumcincta...  Research in Veterinary Science, 59 (1), 24-29, 1995.

"... 8% protein diet [compared to 15% and 33%]... difficulty expressing a competent immune response to pathogenic challenge in the wild." Lochmiller, R. L., et al. Relationship between protein nutritional status and immunocompetence... The Auk, 110 (3), 503-510, 1993.

"... consumption of diets high in simple sugars stimulates Cr losses; this coupled with marginal intake of dietary Cr may lead to marginal Cr deficiency, which is associated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism." Kozlovsky, A., et al. Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses. Metabolism. 35, 515-518, 1986.

"Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased more with the low-carbohydrate diet than with the low-fat diet." Yancy, W. S., et al. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140 (10), 769-777, 2004.

"... consumption of diets with low carbohydrate, high protein, and moderate fat content may be advantageous for prevention and management of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes... " Rand, J.S., et al. Diet in the prevention of diabetes and obesity. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 12 (S6), 2003

"... an increase in dietary protein... results in significant weight loss... " Weigle, D. S., et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and gherlin concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82 (1), 41-48, 2005.

"... a 20% higher protein intake... resulted in a 50% lower body weight... " Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., et al. High protein intake sustains weight maintenance after body weight loss... International Journal of Obesity, 28, 57-64, 2004.

"... greater reductions in total and abdominal fat mass... on the high protein diet... " Parker, B., et al. Effect of a High-Protein, High-Monounsaturated Fat Weight Loss Diet on Glycemic Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2001.

"Intake of dietary protein, especially from animal source, may be associated with a reduced incidence of hip fractures... " Munger, R. G., et al. Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture... American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69 (1), 147-152, 1999.

"... lower percent animal protein also was significantly related to bone loss... " Hannan, M.T., et al. Effect of dietary protein on bone loss... Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 15 (12), 2504-2512, 2000.

"... A diet low in protein and phosphorus may have adverse effects on calcium balance... Studies... suggest that high protein foods do not cause calcium loss." Spencer, H., et al. Do Protein and Phosphorus Cause Calcium Loss? The Journal of Nutrition, 28 January 1988.

"When there's too much sugar in the diet, the liver converts it to lipid... increased production of lipid shut down a gene called SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), reducing the amount of SHBG in the blood. SHBG plays a key role in controlling the amount of testosterone and estrogen that's available throughout the body... " Too much sugar turns off gene that controls the effects of sex steroids. Physorg.com, 11-10-07.

MORE scientific citations proving the importance of genetically appropriate foods, the deleterious effects of high carbohydrate diets, and the benefits of protein, functional lipids, enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, micronutrients and other nutraceuticals as found in the Protein Key™ formulations:

"... higher protein intake does not have an adverse effect on bone... " Beasley, J., et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91, 1311-1316, 2010; "... a high-protein, calcium-replete diet may protect against bone loss... " Bowen, J., et al. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 568-573, 2004; "... low protein negatively effects bone health... " Bonjour, J. -P. Dietary Protein: An Essential Nutrient For Bone Health. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 24 (90006), 526S-536S, 2005; "Intake of dietary protein, especially from animal source, may be associated with a reduced incidence of hip fractures... " Munger, R. G., et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69 (1), 147-152, 1999; "... lower percent animal protein also was significantly related to bone loss... " Hannan, M.T., et al. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 15 (12), 2504-2512, 2000; "... A diet low in protein and phosphorus may have adverse effects on calcium balance... high protein foods do not cause calcium loss." Spencer, H., et al. Do Protein and Phosphorus Cause Calcium Loss? The Journal of Nutrition, 28 January 1988; "Carbs can cause pancreatic cancer... " Michaud, D. Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 94(17):1293-300, 2002; "Intakes of fat and protein... are not associated with risk of renal cancer." Lee. J. E., et al. Fat, protein, and meat consumption and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100 (23), 1695-1706, 2008; "... no associations of pancreatic cancer risk with intake of poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, total fat, saturated fat, or cholesterol." Nothlings, U., et al. Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97 (19), 1458-1465, 2005; "... the low-protein diet caused high mortality during lactation, very low body weights at weaning, reduction in the size of the molars, delay in the third molar eruption, high frequency of missing cusps on third molars and increased susceptibility to carious lesions in the occusal sulci and on the smooth surfaces of the molars... " Shaw, J., and D. Griffiths. Dental Abnormalities in Rats Attributable to Protein Deficiency during Reproduction. Journal of Nutrition, 80, 123-141, 1963; "... it appears premature to consider or promote food starches in modern diets as safe for teeth." Lingstrom, P, et al. Food Starches and Dental Caries. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 11 (3), 366-380, 2000; "... risk of AMD (age-related macular degeneration) progression... may benefit from consuming a smaller amount of refined carbohydrates." Chiu, CJ, et al. Dietary carbohydrate and the progression of age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(4), 1210-1218, 2007; "... excessive amounts of dietary sugar... risk factor for the development of cataract... " Veromann, S.et al. Dietary Sugar and Salt Represent Real Risk Factors for Cataract Development. Ophthalmologica, 217(4), 302-307, 2003; "... it seems reasonable to question the wisdom of recommending... low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets." Jeppesen, J., et al. Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease... American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65 (4), 1027-1033, 1997; "... replacing carbohydrates with protein may be associated with lower risk of ischemic heart disease... " Hu, F. B., et al. Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease... American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 (2), 221-227, 1999; "... partial substitution of carbohydrate with either protein or monounsaturated fat can further lower blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce estimated cardiovascular risk." Appel, L. J., et al. Effects of Protein, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate Intake on Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 294 (19), 2005; "... a high intake of rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates increases the risk of ischemic heart disease... " Liu, S., et al. Relation between diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75 (3), 492-498, 2002; "... 8% protein diet [compared to 15% and 33%]... difficulty expressing a competent immune response to pathogenic challenge in the wild." Lochmiller, R. L., et al. Relationship between protein nutritional status and immunocompetence in northern bobwhite chicks. The Auk, 110 (3), 503-510, 1993; "... protein deficiency alone can impair immune responsiveness for prolonged periods, perhaps permanently, if imposed during critical periods of immune ontogeny... " Gershwin, M. E., et al. Nutrition and Immunity. Proc Nutr Soc, 12, 1987; "... protein supplement accelerated the development of immunity to O. circumcincta... " Coop, R.L., et al. Effect of dietary protein supplementation on the development of immunity to Ostertagia circumcincta in growing lambs. Research in Veterinary Science, 59 (1), 24-29, 1995; "Low-fat (high-carbohydrate) diets appear to increase the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver inflammation, according to small research studies... " Benjaminov O. et al. The effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on the nonalcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients before bariatric surgery. Surgical Endoscopy, 21(8):1423-1427, 2007; "... dietary items that have often been suspected of favouring gall stone formation are sugar... study provides impressive evidence to incriminate refined sugar... " Heaton, K. The Sweet Road to Gallstones. British Medical Journal, 288, 1103-1104, 1984; "... refined sugars may increase the risk of gallstone formation... " Misciagna, G., et al. Diet, physical activity, and gallstones—a population-based, case-control study in Southern Italy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 120-126, 1999; "... increased fructose consumption contributes to the development of NAFLD." Ouyang, X., et al. Fructose Consumption as a Risk Factor for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Journal of Hepatology, 48 (6), 993-999, 2008; Couzy, F., et al. Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals. Progressive Food and Nutrition Science, 17, 65-87, 1993. Kozlovsky, A., et al. Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses. Metabolism. 35, 515-518, 1986 Lemann, J. Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and Magnesium. Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 236-245, 1976; "... consumption of diets high in simple sugars stimulates Cr losses; this coupled with marginal intake of dietary Cr may lead to marginal Cr deficiency, which is associated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism." Kozlovsky, A., et al. Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses. Metabolism. 35, 515-518, 1986; "Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased more with the low-carbohydrate diet than with the low-fat diet." Yancy, W. S., et al. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140 (10), 769-777, 2004; "... consumption of diets with low carbohydrate, high protein, and moderate fat content may be advantageous for prevention and management of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes... " Rand, J.S., et al. Diet in the prevention of diabetes and obesity in companion animals. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 12 (S6), 2003; "... a high-protein diet may promote an increased lean tissue mass in cats... helpful in preventing or treating obesity... " Nguyen, P. High Protein Intake Affects Lean Body Mass but Not Energy Expenditure in Nonobese Neutered Cats. The Journal of Nutrition, 134, 2084S-2086SA, 2004; "... the high protein diet resulted in greater retention of lean body mass compared with the control diet... " Laflamme, D., and S. Hannah. Increased Dietary Protein Promotes Fat Loss and Reduces Loss of Lean Body Mass During Weight Loss in Cats. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med, 3 (2), 2005; "... change from high-carbohydrate to high-protein content has a greater effect on increasing weight loss... increased loss of fat mass while maintaining lean muscle mass." Bierer, T. L., and L. M. Bui. High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate Diets Enhance Weight Loss in Dogs. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, 134, 2087S-2089S, 2004; "... an increase in dietary protein... results in significant weight loss... " Weigle, D. S., et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and gherlin concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82 (1), 41-48, 2005; "... a 20% higher protein intake... resulted in a 50% lower body weight... " Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., et al. High protein intake sustains weight maintenance after body weight loss... International Journal of Obesity, 28, 57-64, 2004; "... greater reductions in total and abdominal fat mass... on the high protein diet... " Parker, B., et al. Effect of a High-Protein, High-Monounsaturated Fat Weight Loss Diet on Glycemic Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2001; "... high protein diets allow a higher energy intake to weight loss in cats... " Vasconcellos, R. S., et al. Protein Intake during Weight Loss Influences the Energy Required for Weight Loss and Maintenance in Cats. Journal of Nutrition, 139 (5), 855-860, 2009; "... higher protein intake might reduce lean body mass losses... " Diez, M., et al. Weight Loss in Obese Dogs: Evaluation of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 1685S-1687S, 2002; Guliford, W. Grant, et al. Food Sensitivity in Cats with Chronic Idiopathic Gastrointestinal Problems. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 15 (1), 7-13, 2008;Sebastian A, et al. Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors. Am J Clin Nutr, 76(6):1308-16, 2002;Grundy, S. The Optimal ratio of fat-to carbohydrate in the diet. Annual Review of Nutrition, 19:325-341, 1999;Milton K. Hunter-gatherer diets -- a different perspective. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71:(3) 665-667, 2000;Cordain L, et al. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(3) 682-692, 2000;Cordain L, et al. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. European Journal Clinical Nutrition, 56 Suppl 1:S42-52, 2002;Cordain L, et al. Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease. European Journal Clinical Nutrition, 56(3):181-91, 2002;Eaton SB, et al. Evolutionary health promotion: a consideration of common counterarguments. Preventive Medicine, 34(2):119-23, 2002;Eaton SB, et al. Evolutionary health promotion. Preventive Medicine, 34(2):109-18, 2002;Eaton SB, et al. An evolutionary foundation for health promotion. World Review Nutrition Diet, 90:5-12, 2001;Cordain L, et al. Macronutrient estimations in hunter-gatherer diets. American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 72(6):1589-92, 2000;Beasley, J., et al. Is protein intake associated with bone mineral density in young women? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91, 1311-1316, 2010;Munger, R., et al. Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69 (1), 147-152, 1999;Alpert, P.T. Bone Health: How to Maximize Bone Mineral Density. Home Health Care Management Practice, 22 (3), 207-210, 2010;Darling, A. L., et al. Dietary protein and bone health: a systemic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90 (6), 1674-1692, 2009;Bowen, J., et al. A High Dairy Protein, High-Calcium Diet Minimizes Bone Turnover in Overweight Adults during Weight Loss. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 568-573, 2004;Bonjour, J. -P. Dietary Protein: An Essential Nutrient For Bone Health. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 24 (90006), 526S-536S, 2005;Kerstetter, J. E. Dietary protein and bone: a new approach to an old question. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90 (6), 1451-1452, 2009;Bonjour, J.-P., and T. Chevalley. The Dietary Protein-Acidosis Hypothesis in the Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis. BoneKEy, 6 (7), 254-258, 2009;Lorincz, E., et al. Bone Health: Part 1, Nutrition. Sports Health, 1 (3), 253-260, 2009;Mazmanian, S. The Microbial Health Factor. The Scientist, 23 (8), 34-38, 2009;Mazmanian, S., et al. An immunomodulatory molecule of symbiotic bacteria directs maturation of the host immune system. Cell, 122, 107-118, 2005;Bach, J.F. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 911-920, 2002;Mazmanian, S., et al. A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease. Nature, 453, 620-625, 2008;Lekcharoensuk, C., et al. Associations between dry dietary factors and canine calcium oxalate uroliths. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 63 (3), 330-337, 2002;Stoll BA. Upper abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and breast cancer risk. International Journal Obesity Related Metabolic Disorder, 26(6):747-53, 2002;Michaud, D. Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 94(17):1293-300, 2002;Michels, K.B., et al. Type 2 diabetes and subsequent incidence of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study. Diabetes Care, 26 (6), 1752-1758, 2003;Hogstedt, B. Hyperinsulinemia: a prospective Risk Factor for Lethal Clinical Prostate Cancer. European Journal of Cancer. 41 (18), 2887-2895, 2005;Lee. J. E., et al. Fat, protein, and meat consumption and renal  cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100 (23), 1695-1706, 2008;Fernandez-Twinn, D.S., et al. Compensatory mammary growth following protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation increases early-onset mammary tumor incidence in rats. Carcinogenesis, 28 (3), 545-552;Nothlings, U., et al. Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97 (19), 1458-1465, 2005;Hale, F. Dental caries in the dog. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 50 (12), 1301-1304, 2009;Shaw, J., and D. Griffiths. Dental Abnormalities in Rats Attributable to Protein Deficiency during Reproduction. Journal of Nutrition, 80, 123-141, 1963;Lingstrom, P, et al. Food Starches and Dental Caries. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 11 (3), 366-380, 2000;Leray, V., et al. Protein Intake Does Not Affect Insulin Sensitivity in Normal Weight Cats. The Journal of Nutrition, 136, 2028S-2030S, 2006;Kettelhut, I.C., et al. Glucose homeostatis in a carnivore animal (cat) and in rats fed a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 239, R347-R444, 1980;Rand, J.S., et al. Diet in the prevention of diabetes and obesity in companion animals. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 12 (S6), 2003;Willett W, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 76(1):274S-80S, 2002;Hu FB, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. New England Journal Medicine, 345(11):790-7, 2001;Rand, J., et al. The Link Between Obesity and Diabetes in Cats and Dogs. The Role of Nutrition in Weight Management, 2003;Gannon, M., et al. An increase in dietary protein improves blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (4), 734-741, 2003;Parker, B., et al. Effect of a High-Protein, High-Monounsaturated Fat Weight Loss Diet on Glycemic Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2001;Farnsworth, E., et al. Effect of high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (1), 31-39, 2003;Baba, N. H., et al. High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergenic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23 (11), 1202-1206, 1999;Fraga, M. R., et al. Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2005;Wu. Q., and M. Suzuki. Parental obesity and overweight affect the body-fat accumulation in the offspring: the possible effect of a high-fat diet through epigenetic inheritance. Obesity Reviews, 7 (2), 201-208, 2006;Godfrey, K. and D. Barker. Fetal nutrition and adult disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (5), 1344S-1352S, 2000;Han, H., et al. Maternal malnutrition induces different cardiac gene expression in pulmonary hypertensive steers at high elevation. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 295 (1), H382-H389, 2008;Gorski, J.N., et al. Maternal obesity increases hypothalamic leptin receptor expression and sensitivity in juvenile obesity-prone rats. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 292 (5), R1782-R1791, 2007;Han, H., et al. Maternal nutrient restriction alters gene expression in the ovine fetal heart. Journal of Physiology, 558 (1), 111-121, 2004;Cooney, C. Germ cells carry the epigenetic benefits of grandmother's diet. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2006;McGowan, P., et al. Diet and the epigenetic (re)programming of phenotypic differences in behavior. Brain Research, 1237, 12-24, 2008;Ling, C., and L. Groop. Epigenetics: A Molecular Link Between Environmental Factors and Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes, 58 (12), 2718-2725, 2009;Ryan, F. P. An alternative approach to medical genetics based on modern evolutionary biology. Part 5: epigenetics and genomics. JRSM, 102 (12), 531-537, 2009;Negri, I., et al. Unraveling the Wolbachia evolutionary role: the reprogramming of the host genomic imprinting. Proc R Soc B, 276 (1666), 2845-2491, 2009;van der Maarel, S.M. Epigenetic mechanism in health and disease. Ann Rheum Dis, 67 (supp 3), iii97-iii100, 2008;Gluckman, P. D., et al. Effect of In Utero and Early-Life Conditions on Adult Health and Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 359 (1), 61-73, 2008;Feinberg, A. P. Epigenetics at the Epicenter of Modern Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299 (11), 1345-1350, 2008;Esteller, M. Epigenetics in Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 358 (11), 1148-1159, 2008;Vogt, G., et al. Production of different phenotypes from the same genotype in the same environment by developmental variation. Journal Exp Biology, 211 (4), 510-523, 2008;Martin, F. L. Epigenomics and disease, 10th anniversary winter meeting of the UK Molecular Epidemiology Group (MEG), the Royal Statistical Society, London, UK, 8th December 2006. Mutagenesis, 22 (6), 425-427, 2007;Erhuma, A., et al. Prenatal exposure to a low-protein diet programs disordered regulation of lipid metabolism in the aging rat. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism, 292, E1702-E1714, 2007;Alexander, B. T. Epigenetic changes in gene expression: focus on "The liver X-receptor gene promoter is hypermethylated in a mouse model of prenatal protein restriction." 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